p

Duk batutuwa

+

Duk abin da game da Disk Format da Format Disk

A lokacin da magana ne game da faifai format, mafi yawan mutane ba su sani ba abin da shi ne da kuma yadda za a yi aiki da shi. Wannan shi ne inda wannan labarin ya zo daga. Wannan labarin rufe da dama sassa game da faifai format, danna don karanta wani ɓangare kana sha'awar:

Part 1. Mene ne fayil tsarin?

Fayil tsarin

Fayil tsarin da ake amfani da su taimaka wajen tsara da kuma store data mafi nagarta sosai da kuma a matsayin mai sauƙi ne sosai m. Wannan ne yake aikata by raba dukan info cikin kankanin sassa, adana a cikin m little Kwayoyin ko sassa na da wuya faifai drive (HDD). Wadannan sassa ana kanta harhada cikin gungu (Microsoft ya kira su 'kasafi raka'a'). Girman kowane tari ya dogara da 'yan musamman halaye na kwamfuta. Biyu mafi muhimmanci wadanda su ne da aiki System (OS), girman HDD da fayil tsarin kanta. Dangane da girman da kowane tari, yadda ya dace da HDD zai bambanta, saboda haka, kwamfuta ta overall yawan aiki zai bambanta ma.


A cikin wannan labarin, za mu takaice Siffar da kwatanta babban bambance-bambance tsakanin uku mafi mashahuri Windows fayil tsarin: FAT32, NTFS & HPFS.

Sashe na 2.File tsarin iri

Fat Siffar

Daya daga cikin mafi simplistic fayil tsarin shi ne mai. Na farko 'File kasafi Table' an halitta ta Bill Gates da kuma Marc MacDonald a shekarar 1977. A cikin tsawon lokaci shi ne babban fayil tsarin for DOS da Microsoft Windows (har sai a saki Windows ME).


A duk mai tsarin yawan sassa a kowane tari ne, sunã daidaita da wasu ikon biyu (watau 1, 2, 4, 8 da dai sauransu). Kowane yanki na bayanai da aka adana a cikin wani ko da yawan gungu (m 1). Saboda haka, idan muna bukatar mu adana 40B na bayanai da kuma girman kowane tari ne 4KB, za mu yi amfani da kawai a kusa da 1% na samuwa memory, abin da ya sa shi wajen wanda ya kasa aiki. Saboda haka, da karami da girman kowane tari - da mafi girma yawan aiki da tsarin.


Akwai hudu main juyi na wannan fayil tsarin: FAT12, FAT16, FAT32 da exFAT. Duk wadannan iri bambanta daga juna cikin sharuddan yawan bytes amfani da su ajiye index yawan kowace tari. Saboda haka, misali, ga FAT16, wannan lambar ne 16 da sauransu. A aikace, FAT12 aka yi amfani da mafi yawa floppy DISKs, FAT16 a cikin kananan-sized CDs da exFAT har yanzu ana amfani da daban-daban flash tafiyarwa. Fayil tsarin da muka ne musamman sha'awar ne FAT32, kamar yadda shi ne har yanzu daya daga cikin na kowa su.


FAT32 fara bayyana tare da a saki Windows 95 OSR2 a 1996 da kuma da gaske an sabunta ce ta FAT16. FAT32 tana amfani da 32B magance tsarin for gungu, tare da iyaka zuwa fayil din size, sunã daidaita da 4GB. A yi wannan na nufin cewa matsakaicin yawan fayiloli a kan FAT32 ne 4.177.920 da matsakaicin yawan fayiloli / manyan fayiloli ta kowane fayil da yake 65,534. A halin yanzu, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2003 da kuma Windows 7 dukan goyon baya FAT32. Duk da haka, ko da yake biyu Windows 2000 da Windows XP iya karatu da rubutu FAT32, babbar FAT32 fayil tsarin wanda za a iya halitta a kan wadannan dandamali ne kawai 32GB.


HPFS Siffar


HPFS ko 'The High Performance File System' An musamman tsara don OS / 2 don ya rage gazawar na mai. Da shugabanci kungiyar na HPFS ne guda a matsayin mai, amma, kuma ƙara da da alama na sarrafa kansa kasawa na fayiloli, bisa ga sunayensu. A filename girman kanta da aka mika wa har zuwa 254 characters biyu byte. Bugu da kari, HPFS yana amfani da jiki sassa, maimakon gungu, wanda rage batattu faifai sarari muhimmanci. Har ila yau, HPFS ta kuskure gyara damar da yawa fi mai.


Ko da yake, HPFS na da disadvantages da. Shi ne mafi alhẽri a gare tafiyarwa a cikin 200MB - 400MB range. Idan girma ne kasa da 200MB, shi ya sa HPFS wajen wanda ya kasa aiki, kuma a lõkacin da girma ne a kan 400MB, da masu amfani za a fuskantar da wasu cika rage daraja. Har ila yau, an ne kawai da goyan bayan karkashin Windows NT iri 3.1, 3.5 da 3,51.


NTFS Siffar


NTFS ko 'New Technology File System' - fayil tsarin da Microsoft. Tsoho fayil tsarin Windows NT iyali. Asali da aka gabatar a 1993, samun nasara mai yawa daga wanda ya riga: HPFS. Its main inganta a kan HPFS da mai ne cikin sharuddan AMINCI, ta ƙara ayyuka da kawar da gazawar, idan aka kwatanta da HPFS da mai.


AMINCI: Da fari dai, NTFS ko da yaushe rike track of ta ma'amaloli da fayil tsarin. Wannan damar zuwa da sauri 'mirgine mayar da' ma'amaloli wa ta ƙarshe yi batu domin for fayil tsarin warke. Abu na biyu, idan wani abu na musamman na tsarin da dama, kamar sa guda bangaren gazawar, wanda ba zai tasiri a dukan fayil tsarin ma. Abu na uku, NTFS goyon bayan zafi kayyade.


Ayyuka: NTFS kanta samar da wani dandali ga sauran fadi fayil tsarin da za a gina a kan. Har ila yau, tana goyon bayan da Windows NT tsaro model da mahara data kõguna. Bugu da kari, shi damar masu amfani don ƙara musamman a tsare halayen da zabi fayil.


Kawar da gazawar: Mafi muhimmanci, a karkashin NTFS girman fayiloli da kundin da aka muhimmanci ya karu, kyale su su zama har zuwa 2 ^ 64 bytes. Kama da mai, NTFS kuma yana amfani da gungu, wanda solves matsalar kafaffiyar kansu size, fuskantar da HPFS ta masu amfani.


Da yake magana da disadvantages, shi ba da shawarar a yi amfani da shi a kan ƙarar, karami fiye da 400MB (irin wannan matsalar to HPFS). Har ila yau, akwai sauran wani file boye-boye da wannan fayil tsarin.


FAT32 vs NTFS


A halin yanzu NTFS ne mai misali fayil tsarin ga dukan Windows OS, fara daga Windows NT kuma, dole. Babban uku dalilai su yi gudu da shi a kan FAT32 su ne:

  • Da damar warke daga faifai da alaka kurakurai ta atomatik.
  • Inganta goyon baya ga manyan HDD.
  • More ci-gaba tsaro, bisa izinin tsarin da boye-boye wa ƙuntata damar yin amfani da musamman takardun.
  • Kawai banda zai zama idan ka yi amfani da dual-booting a kan kwamfutarka. Da ciwon biyu daban-daban OS a kan kwamfutarka zai nufa cewa a farkon OS ya kamata a sanya a kan FAT32. Har ila yau, kana bukatar ka tabbatar cewa FAT32 ne mai firamare bangare a kwamfuta.


    Kammalawa: To, da fin so fayil tsarin for Windows a zamanin yau ne NTFS. Ko da yake, idan ka har yanzu ta yin amfani da FAT32 da mamaki yadda za a canja shi, a nan ne mai shiryarwa dace da yadda za a maida su NTFS ba tare da rasa wani muhimmin data.

    Top